NRGI, with the help of local partners and a grant from the Ford Foundation, collected the data for the Andean database from national statistics agencies in four countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The data covers a wide variety of themes around the extractive industries in these countries and is meant to provide an overall understanding. It includes economic indicators, industry-specific production and value figures, legal frameworks and even social conflict records.
In the below visualization, data from two indicators are tracked: the annual production value of all natural resources within each country and the amount of money the government collected from extractive industries. This data was not available for Colombia.
The data suggests that the legal framework regarding ownership of the resources and revenue collection is as important as growth in the natural resources sector when it comes to the amount of revenues collected. Oil-producing Ecuador had the highest amount of revenues from natural resources despite lower overall production value. This is particularly apparent after the commodity downturn in 2011, when Peru slipped into third of these three countries. Ecuador and Bolivia’s governments have kept the ownership of all hydrocarbons through their state owned oil companies and signed production sharing contracts, increasing the amount of revenue captured by the state. Meanwhile, Peru’s minerals are extracted by private mining companies and despite discussions on creating a windfall profit tax during the high price years, new taxes where only created when prices started to fall and additional revenue collection was low.
Explore the data on ResourceData.org here.
Source: The Social Impact of the Extractive Industries in the Andean Countries, Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI), 2016